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Part of a series on the History of the Cold War. Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but the period is generally considered to span the Truman Doctrine 12 March to the dissolution of the Soviet Union 26 December The term " cold " is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two superpowers , but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars. The conflict was based around the ideological and geopolitical struggle for global influence by the two powers, following their temporary alliance and victory against Nazi Germany in Aside from the nuclear arsenal development and conventional military deployment, the struggle for dominance was expressed via indirect means such as psychological warfare , propaganda campaigns, espionage , far-reaching embargoes , rivalry at sports events and technological competitions such as the Space Race. The West was led by the United States as well as the other First World nations of the Western Bloc that were generally liberal democratic but tied to a network of authoritarian states, most of which were their former colonies.
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K—T extinction , abbreviation of Cretaceous—Tertiary extinction , also called K—Pg extinction or Cretaceous—Paleogene extinction , a global extinction event responsible for eliminating approximately 80 percent of all species of animals at or very close to the boundary between the Cretaceous and Paleogene periods, about 66 million years ago. The K—T extinction was characterized by the elimination of many lines of animals that were important elements of the Mesozoic Era The K—T extinction ranks third in severity of the five major extinction episodes that punctuate the span of geologic time. The only lines of archosaurs —the group of reptiles that contains the dinosaurs , birds , and crocodilians —that survived the extinction were the lineages that led to modern birds and crocodilians.
Mass Effect: The Dating Sim. Would you play it?
All absolute isotopic ages are based on radioactive decay , a process whereby a specific atom or isotope is converted into another specific atom or isotope at a constant and known rate. Most elements exist in different atomic forms that are identical in their chemical properties but differ in the number of neutral particles—i. For a single element, these atoms are called isotopes. Because isotopes differ in mass , their relative abundance can be determined if the masses are separated in a mass spectrometer see below Use of mass spectrometers. Radioactive decay can be observed in the laboratory by either of two means: 1 a radiation counter e.
The Late Devonian extinction was one of five major extinction events in the history of life on Earth. A major extinction, the Kellwasser event , occurred at the boundary that marks the beginning of the last phase of the Devonian period, the Famennian faunal stage the Frasnian—Famennian boundary , about — million years ago. Although it is clear that there was a massive loss of biodiversity in the Late Devonian, the timespan of this event is uncertain, with estimates ranging from , to 25 million years, extending from the mid-Givetian to the end-Famennian. By the Late Devonian, the land had been colonized by plants and insects. In the oceans, massive reefs were built by corals and stromatoporoids.