Proposition 8 , known informally as Prop 8 , was a California ballot proposition and a state constitutional amendment intended to ban same-sex marriage; it passed in the November California state elections and was later overturned in court. The proposition was created by opponents of same-sex marriage in advance  of the California Supreme Court 's May appeal ruling, In re Marriage Cases , which followed the short-lived same-sex weddings controversy and found the previous ban on same-sex marriage Proposition 22 , unconstitutional. Proposition 8 was ultimately ruled unconstitutional by a federal court on different grounds in , although the court decision did not go into effect until June 26, , following the conclusion of proponents' appeals. Proposition 8 countermanded the ruling by adding the same provision as in Proposition 22 to the California Constitution , providing that "only marriage between a man and a woman is valid or recognized in California", thereby superseding the ruling. Horton , in , on the grounds that it "carved out a limited [or 'narrow'] exception to the state equal protection clause"; in his dissent, Justice Carlos R. Moreno wrote that exceptions to the equal protection clause could not be made by any majority since its whole purpose was to protect minorities against the will of a majority.
Minnesota Gay Couples Wed as State Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage – NBC 6 South Florida
The left is fractured, with disagreements between the Bernie and Hillary wings of the Democratic Party threatening to undercut its ability to turn out the base, appeal to independents and win over disillusioned GOP voters. The question remains whether the so-called resistance can transform itself from a throng of angry voices into a majority capable of creating lasting progressive change. As activists take up this challenge, they should study the playbook of one of the most successful social justice movements in history: the fight for LGBTQ equality. In short order, our movement beat back the AIDS epidemic, ended sodomy bans, won access to military service and marriage and ultimately more than doubled public approval of gay identity. Success came when LGBTQ advocates learned to speak the language of those they most needed to enlist rather than those who already agreed with them. To some, framing our goals in terms aimed at more conservative audiences was tantamount to selling out. Yet we learned that such pragmatism could achieve more — and more durable — social change than ideological purity.
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Voters drawn to the polls by ballot issues - from minimum wage to medical insurance - could affect presidential race. November 2, Alaskans will decide whether to decriminalize marijuana use by adults. Californians are weighing whether the three-strikes law that set a get-tough standard for the nation needs to be toned down. Alabama and Arkansas must choose whether to raise property taxes to boost school funding.